Information, or self-information, in information theory is a basic element to measure the amount of information quantitatively. As an example, information can be measured by the unit of bit as follows

I(X) = \log_2 \left( \frac{1}{p(X)} \right)

where X is the event, p(X) is the probability of event X. If the event is an unexpected or less expected to happen, the amount of information is higher while the frequently happened events have low values of I(X).

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